Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition, in other words surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
Some of the more common are:
Endodontic (surgery involving the pulp or root of the tooth)
Pulpotomy The opening of the pulp chamber of the tooth to allow an infection to drain; Usually a precursor to a root canal
Pulpectomy - The removal of the pulp from the pulp chamber to temporarily relieve pain; Usually a precursor to a root canal.
Apicoectomy - A root-end resection. Occasionally a root canal alone will not be enough to relieve pain and the end of the tooth, called the apex, will be removed by entering through the gingiva and surgically extracting the diseased material.
Implants — a procedure in which a titanium implant is surgically placed in the bone (mandible or maxilla), allowed to heal, and 4-6 months later an artificial tooth is connected to the implant by cement or retained by a screw.
Extraction — a procedure in which a diseased, redundant, or problematic tooth is removed, either by pulling or cutting out. This procedure is very common — many people have their wisdom teeth removed before they become problematic.
Fiberotomy — a procedure to sever the fibers around a tooth, preventing it from relapsing.